Cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol)

Category:

  • Antibiotic

Description:

  • Cephalosporin, First Generation

Indications:

  • Respiratory tract infections (S. pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, H. influenzae, S. aureus, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)

  • Genitourinary tract infections (E. coli, Klebsiella species, some Enterobacter species)

  • Skin, bone, and joint infections (S. aureus, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)

  • Biliary tract infections (E. coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, S. aureus)

  • Septicemia (S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, Klebsiella species, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis)

  • Endocarditis (S. aureus, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)

Contraindications:

  • Cross sensitivity with penicillin allergies

Precautions:

  • Pregnancy category B

  • Use with caution in patients with penicillin allergy (5-10% chance of cross-reactivity)

  • Dosage modifications are generally only required in patients with severe renal impairment

Adverse Reactions (Side Effects):

  • Hypersensitivity reactions

  • Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

  • Vaginitis  

Dosage:

  • Administered by IV or IM injection

  • Mild infections:

    • 250-500mg every 8 hours

  • Moderate to severe infections:

    • 500mg -1 gram every 6-8 hours

  • Pneumococcal pneumonia:

    • 500mg every 12 hours

  • Severe, life-threatening infections:

    • 1-1.5 grams every 6 hours (up to 12 grams per day have been used)

  • Acute, uncomplicated UTIs:

    • 1 gram every 12 hours

  • Perioperative prophylaxis:

    • Pre-op: 1 gram IV or IM, to 1 hour pre-surgery

  • Intra-operative (>2 hours): 

    • 500mg 1 gram IV or IM at appropriate intervals

  • Post-op: 

    • 500mg 1 gram IV or IM every 6-8 hours for 24 hours post surgery

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