Ephedrine (Various; also combined with various drug entities)

Category:

  • Nervous system

Description:

  • Bronchodilator, vasopressor, decongestant

Indications:

  • Bronchial asthma

  • Nasal congestion

  • Vasopressor in shock

Contraindications:

  • Narrow-angle glaucoma

Precautions:

  • Pregnancy category C

  • Heart disease, coronary insufficiency, dysrhythmias, angina, hyperthyroidism

  • Diabetes mellitus, prostatic hypertrophy, increased intracranial pressure, hypovolemia

Adverse Reactions (Side Effects):

  • CNS: anxiety, confusion, dizziness, hallucinations, headache, insomnia, seizures, tremors

  • CV: chest pain, dysrhythmias, hypertension, palpitations, tachycardia

  • EENT: burning, dryness, irritation, rebound congestion with prolonged use

  • GI: anorexia, nausea, vomiting

  • GU: dysuria, urinary retention

  • METAB: hyperglycemia

  • RESP: respiratory difficulty

  • SKIN: contact dermatitis, pallor

Dosage:

Administered orally, intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously, topically

  • Adult:   

    • IM/SC 25-50mg, not to exceed 150mg per 24 hours

    • IV 10-25mg, not to exceed 150mg per 24 hours

    • PO 25-50mg 2-3 times daily

    • TOP (Nasal congestion): instill 3-4 drops every 4 hours or small amount of gel in each nostril every 4 hours

  • Child:            

    • PO/SC/IV 3 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 4-6 hours

  • TOP (Nasal congestion): instill 3-4 drops every 4 hours or small amount of gel in each nostril every 4 hours

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