Lidocaine (Xylocaine, Octocaine, Nervocaine, Dilocaine)

Category:

  • Local anesthetic

Description:

  • Local anesthetic

Indications:

  • LOCAL: infiltration anesthesia, nerve block

  • TOP (spray, ointment, solution) : anesthesia of skin and accessible mucous membranes

  • TOP (jelly): anesthesia of urethra, anesthetic lubricant for endotracheal intubation

Contraindications:

  • Hypersensitivity to amide anesthetics, heart block, septicemia, ophthalmic use

  • Spinal anesthesia (preparations containing preservatives)

Precautions:

  • Pregnancy category C

  • Inflammation, sepsis, shock

  • Elderly, children, severe liver disease

Adverse Reactions (Side Effects):

  • CNS: anxiety, disorientation, seizures, shivering, tremors, loss of consciousness

  • CV: bradycardia, cardiac arrest, dysrhythmias, myocardial depression

  • EENT: blurred vision, tinnitus

  • RESP: respiratory arrest, status asthmaticus

  • SKIN: allergic reactions, burning, edema, irritation, rash, tissue necrosis, urticaria

Dosage:

Administered topically, injection

  • Adult and Child:

    • LOCAL varies with procedure, degree of anesthesia desired, vascularity of tissue, duration of anesthesia required, and physical condition of patient; max 4.5 mg/kg/dose, do not repeat within 2 hours

    • TOP apply to affected area as needed, max 3 mg/kg/dose, do not repeat within 2 hours

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