Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Macrobid)

Category:

  • Antibiotic

Description:

  • Urinary tract anti-infective

Indications:

  • Urinary tract infections (from E. coli, enterococci, S. aureus, and certain Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus species)

Contraindications:

  • Patients with anuria, oliguria or significantly impaired renal function

  • Pregnant women at term

  • Infants under one month of age

Precautions:

  • Pregnancy category B

  • Use with caution in patients with G-6-PD deficiency, peripheral neuropathy or pulmonary disease

  • Counsel patient to finish all medication

  • Take with food to enhance absorption

  • May discolor urine

Adverse Reactions (Side Effects):

  • Chest pain, cough

  • Fever, chills

  • Gastrointestinal: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

  • Discolored urine

Dosage:

  • Administered orally

  • Acute infections:

    • Adult: 50-100mg given four times a day with food(around the clock)

    • Children (>1 month old): 5-7mg/kg/day given on four divided doses with food

  • Suppressive therapy in adults:

    • 50-100mg at bedtime

 
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