Vitamins and Minerals

Water Soluble Vitamins

VITAMIN

NAME

DIETARY SOURCES

BODY FUNCTIONS

ADULT RDA

B1

thiamine

rice grain hulls, pork, beef, fresh peas, beans

carbohydrate (sugar) breakdown (metabolism), nervous system function

Male: 1.5 mg
Female: 1.1 mg

B2

riboflavin

meats, poultry, fish, dairy, enriched grains and cereals, green vegetables

cellular growth, P-450 (drug breakdown) enzyme system, and use of fats, sugars and proteins

Male: 1.7 mg
Female: 1.3 mg

B3

niacin

lean meats, fish, liver, cereals/grains, legumes, green vegetables, conversion of dietary tryptophan

decreases cholesterol (LDLs and triglycerides), electron transfer in cellular function

Male: 19 mg
Female: 15 mg

B6

pyridoxine

meats, cereals, lentils, nuts, bananas, avocados, potatoes

heme (blood) production, enzymatic helper in many body systems, protein and fat metabolism

Male: 2 mg
Female: 1.6 mg

B12

cyanocobalamin

produced by microorganisms in animal proteins (milk, oysters, clams)

bone marrow, central nervous system and GI tract function, fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, DNA synthesis, proper Folate function

Male/Female: 2 mcg

 

C

ascorbic acid

fresh vegetables and fruits (peppers, tomato, green leafy, citrus, strawberries, potatoes)

collagen and dentin (teeth) formation, antioxidant of cell membranes, iron absorption from food, repairing of cellular injury

Male/Female: 60 mg

Folate

folic acid

liver, lean beef, veal, yeast, leafy vegetables, legumes, eggs, whole grains, fresh fruit

protein and DNA synthesis, cell growth, proper Vitamin B12 function, red blood formation

Male: 200 mcg
Female: 180 mcg

Fat (Stored) Soluble Vitamins

VITAMIN

NAME

DIETARY SOURCES

BODY FUNCTIONS

ADULT RDA

A

retinoid

yellow-orange pigmented (carrots) and dark leafy vegetables (spinach, etc.), fatty foods (fish, dairy products, and organ meats)

skeletal and tooth development, vision, immune system, hair, teeth and gums 

Male: 3300 IU
Female: 2640 IU

D

calciferol

UV radiation converts cholesterol to Vit D in skin, milk (Vit D supplemented), eggs, fish, beef

skeletal formation, calcium and phosphorus absorption from stomach and calcium mobilization from bone when needed

Male/Female:
<25 yo =  400  IU
>25 yo =  200 IU

E

tocopherol

vegetable oils, margarine, green vegetables, nuts, wheat germ and whole grains

antioxidant of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cellular membranes, development and production of heme (red blood cells), steroids and collagen

Male: 15 IU
Female: 12 IU

K

phytonadione

pork liver, green leafy vegetables, GI flora can produce from diet

blood clotting factors

Male: 80 mcg
Female: 65 mcg

Minerals and Trace Elements

MINERAL/ELEMENT

DIETARY SOURCES

BODY FUNCTIONS

ADULT RDA

calcium

milk and dairy products

bone and tooth development, muscle function, enzyme systems

Male/Female:
11-24yo = 1200 mg
>24yo = 800 mg

chromium

liver, fish, dairy, whole grains

maintains normal glucose use in body and insulin function

Male/Female:            50-200 mcg

cobalt

see Vitamin B12

 

 

copper

organ meats, shellfish, whole grains

nervous system function, iron storage and metabolism

Male/Female: 2-3 mg

fluorine

municipal water supply

bone development, tooth enamel

Male/Female:          1.5-4.0 mg

iodine

iodized salt, saltwater fish and shellfish

thyroid function

Male/Female: 150 mcg

iron

red meats, vegetables, grains

oxygen transport, red blood cell maintenance

Male: 10 mg
Female: 15 mg

magnesium

vegetables, nuts, unmilled whole grains

bone structure, nerve impulses, enzyme function

Male: 350 mg
Female: 280 mg

phosphorus

dairy, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, grains

DNA/RNA structure, enzyme function, teeth and bone maintenance

Male/Female: 800 mg

zinc

high protein meats, oysters, whole grains, legumes, peanuts

DNA/RNA synthesis, Vitamin A mobilization from liver, sexual system functions

Male: 15 mg
Female : 12 mg

 
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