Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Category:

  • Antibiotic

Description:

  • Fluoroquinolone antibiotic

Indications:

  • Lower respiratory tract infections (E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, S. pneumoniae)

  • Skin infections (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, M. morganii, Citrobacter freundii, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. epidermidis)

  • Bone/joint infections (E. cloacae, Serratia marcescens, P. aeruginosa)

  • Urinary tract infections (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, M. morganii, Citrobacter diversus, C. freundii, P. aeruginosa, S. eipdermidis, Entercoccus faecalis)

  • Infectious diarrhea (E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigells flexneri, Shigella sonnei)

  • Typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi)

  • Sexually transmitted diseases (N. gonorrhoeae)

  • Anthrax treatment and exposure prophylaxis

  • Unlabeled uses:

  • cystic fibrosis

  • malignant external otitis

  • tuberculosis

  • Mycobaterium avium complex infection in AIDS patients

Contraindications:

  • None

Precautions:

  • Pregnancy category C

  • May cause photosensitivity reactions

  • May cause pseudomembranous colitis

  • Do not use in young children due to possible cartilage abnormalities

  • May cause ophthalmologic abnormalities

  • Administer on an empty stomach

  • Do not take with antacids, iron, aluminum, magnesium or zinc preparations, milk or dairy products

  • May cause dizziness or lightheadedness, use caution when performing tasks

  • Take each dose with a full glass of water

  • Take on empty stomach, food delays absorption.  Optimal dosing is 2 hours after eating

  • Complete full course of therapy

Adverse Reactions (Side Effects):

  • Angina pectoris, bronchospasm, dyspnea

  • Bad taste in mouth

  • Mental confusion, restlessness

 

Dosage:

  • Administered orally (capsules and suspension) and by IV injection

  • UTIs (mild/moderate): 

    • 250mg po q12h or 200mg IV q12h

  • UTIs (serious/complicated): 

    • 500mg po q12h or 400mg IV q12h

  • Lower resp, skin, bone or joint infection (mild/moderate): 

    • 500mg po q12h or 400mg IV q12h

  • Lower resp, skin, bone or joint infection (serious/complicate): 

    • 750mg po q12h or 400mg IV q8h

  • Infectious diarrhea: 

    • 500mg po q12h

  • Typhoid fever: 

    • 500mg po q12h

  • Urethral/Cervical gonococcal infections (uncomplicated): 

    • 250-500mg single dose

  • Chancroid: 

    • 500mg q12h for 3 days

  • Disseminated gonococcal infections: 

    • 500mg q12h for 7 days following initial treatment with ceftriaxone (1 gram IM or IV q24h until 24-48 after improvement)

  • Anthrax:

    • 1200-2400mg/day with pyrimethamine

    • treatment: 

      • Adult: 400mg IV q12h

      • Child: 2-30mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses

    • prophylaxis: 

      • Adult: 500mg po bid

      • Child: 20-30mg/kg/day divided q12h

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